This page comprises of factual news as well as blogs and other publications related to cross-cultural human rights issues. Opinions expressed in the blogs are not necessarily express the opinions of the CCHRC, but have been added here after careful selection
The relativity of hardship
Yesterday evening I had just started out on a walk through Beijing at night with a colleague, when we met two African fellow attendants of the 2019 South South Human Rights Forum. We invited them to join us. I know the town probably better than most of its more permanent inhabitants, having first arrived their as a student in 1975. In fact, I started talking about that with our friends, pointing out the significantly harder conditions of living in a 1975 Beijing campus. One of the Africans calmly replied: ‘Oh, at that time I was a child soldier in Eritrea’. He made that announcement, that struck me as the most severe type of violation of rights of children, in an extremely matter of fact way. My world stood still for a second, in which I had to rethink my own perception of ‘hardship’. The four of us had a great walk through the heart of this ancient city, and talked about many issues, related to the contents of the Forum. We did not only catch a little fresh air, after an entire day inside the hotel, but also learned a lot about the relativity of hardship from our new friends. That alone made participating in the Forum worth its while.
Cross-cultural Human Rights Review meets with Kunming Delegates in Amsterdam
AMSTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS – On 21 November, Cross-cultural Human Rights Review (CCHRR) was invited to attend a meeting with members of the Kunming delegation who visited the Faculty of Religion and Theology at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU). Delegates Dong Yun, Du Zhongchu and Qian Weiguo were visiting the Netherlands from Kunming, the capital city of the southern Yunnan province of China.
CCHRR Editor-in-Chief, Professor Wim Janse, organized a purposeful meeting for the delegates to meet with members of the VU’s Faculty of Religion and Theology, the Cross-cultural Human Rights Centre and CCHRR. All attendees were allowed to present their expertise and shared their latest developments for there to be a proper exchange of knowledge.
The meeting began with a warm welcome from Professor Ruard Ganzevoort, Dean of the Faculty, and was followed with presentations from fellow faculty members Dr. Samuel Lee, Dr. Bert Dicou, Professor Henk Bakker and Dr. Qiao Cong-rui.
CCHRR Managing Editor Vivian O. F. Aiyedogbon, alongside Researcher for Communications Sarah Njoroge, shared the Review’s mission and aims and informed the delegates on what to expect from the Special Issue – released on 2nd December. The delegates also received information on how to get involved with the Review for future publications.
CCHRR members were thrilled to learn from delegate Dong Yun, Standing Vice Principle of Yunnan Provincial Christian Seminary, who presented on the delegation’s efforts in education and theological management in regional seminaries that are a part of the Yunnan Province.
Delegates Du Zhongchu and Qian Weiguo* provided insight into the cross-section of religion and ethnic relations in the region of Kunming. The delegates added that their ambition is to partner with international academic institutions to broaden their mission.
As CCHRR aims to broaden the scholarship on human rights, we also see the importance of allowing for a deeper dissection into the relationship between human rights and religion. Together, CCHRR and the Kunming delegation found that there is room to explore scholarship in the future.
Long awaited: the launch of the Cross-cultural Human Rights Review
Patrons of culture and human rights finally have a publication platform of their own: the Cross-cultural Human Rights Review (CCHRR). CCHRR is a peer-reviewed periodical devoted to cross-cultural human rights studies. It contains articles in this field as well as in other specialized related areas. The Cross-cultural Human Rights Review is an unrivalled resource for the subject both in the major research libraries of the world and in the private collections of scholars. With an international circulation, the Cross-cultural Human Rights Review provides its readers with articles in English. Frequent theme issues will allow deeper, cutting-edge discussion of selected topics. An extensive book review section is included in every issue keeping you up to date with all the latest information in the field of cross-cultural human rights studies. The Review offers you an easy way to stay on top of your discipline.
Great choice for the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize
Several of the Nobel Peace Prize awards of recent years have been quite controversial. However, this year’s laureate, Mr. Abiy Ahmed, is a choice that fully complies with what the CCHRC is standing for: the implementation of human rights taking local culture and social practices into account. We congratulate Mr. Ahmed with the award, and the Nobel Organization with their excellent choice.
US social problems seen from a Human Rights angle
As an academic organisation, we are careful not to repost discussions on popular platforms. However, a recent post on Quora (Sept. 30, 2019) by an academic of Chinese descent who has been living in the US for a decade does highlight a number of problems in US society that are directly related to human rights. The original question is a long one: ‘Since China’s population dwarfs the US’s population, and China’s GDP seems destined to surpass the US’s GDP, what’s the smartest thing the US can do to set up a situation as favorable as possible to the US while it still has the larger GDP?‘ The reply is well informed from embedded data sources. We are quoting the core arguments here, with only a few belligerent sentences altered or deleted.
- 7% of US citizens are in prison at any moment (this statistic is terrifying, considering China and Canada have roughly 0.1%, Japan and Germany 0.06%). The justice system clearly doesn’t work for average citizens. Americans are NOT born criminals that need to be locked up, but rather the draconian laws, arbitrary law enforcement, etc. intentionally trying to imprison people that have done no harm to the society. Every time someone mentions this, American nationalists will claim they are just locking up criminals. It’s ridiculous. Why aren’t any other country having so many criminals? How hard is it to just admit you did something wrong?
- The US doesn’t have wealth problem (like being robbed by Chinese, Japanese, Europeans, or Mexicans) like Trump claimed, what the US has is a wealth distribution problem. In fact, the US has an average wealth that’s higher than countries with much higher living standard.The problem is, the wealth is concentrated on so few people that vast majority of people are worse off than what they used to be. Since 1980s, the top 1% owns 21 trillions more, while the bottom 50% have lost 900 billions. You see the problem here, and why this model is unsustainable?
- The US has a declining life expectancy along with Afghanistan and Somalia.I don’t think I need to explain why people in Afghanistan and Somalia are dying. The bizarre thing is the US, a country with no wars in its homeland, and one of the richest countries on this planet, somehow managed to climb onto this list. Americans are dying, they live 4 years shorter than most developed countries.
- Oh boy, where to start about the glorious American healthcare? The prices tend to be 20~100 times higher than rest of the world. Even after insurance Americans pay more than rest of the world without insurance. This level of absurdity shouldn’t have happened in anywhere other than a sarcastic fiction, but here we are. This Korean tourist was charged 18k for basically nothing.The doctors did do the check, but in rest of the world it wouldn’t cost more than $180.
Apart from the factual nature of this article, it is also interesting from a cross-cultural point of view. In spite his 10 years in the US, the commentator is still influenced by Chinese cultural values. The same applies to the horrific adventure of the Korean tourist. This story has been widely discussed on the Chinese Internet. On the US side, we see an extremely Universalist ‘rules are rules’ attitude, while the Asian judge this from the opposite particularist perspective. Universalism vs. Particularism plays a major role in the debates about the global employment of human rights. We will go into this deeper on this page in the near future. For the original Quora article, click here.
Exhibition on China’s progress in human rights opened at the United Nations’ main office in Geneva
An exhibition showcasing China’s progress in human rights opened at the United Nations’ main office in Geneva, Switzerland, on Monday, September 9, 2019. The exhibition, named Pursuing Happiness for the People: 70 Years of Human Rights Progress in China, displays some 120 photos as well as films and virtual reality videos related to the topic. You can read more on this topic here.
Diplomatic debate about China’s HR record reveals diverse political agendas
Ambassadors representing 37 countries praised China for its “remarkable achievements in the field of human rights” on July 12, 2019. Although not mentioned verbatim, the fact that this joint statement came just a day after a group of 22 other countries formally condemned Beijing for the mass detention of ethnic and religious minorities in the country’s Xinjiang region leaves no doubt that the second statement is meant to counter the former one.
We will not copy the full texts of either statement here, you can consult the links in the above paragraph for that. Here, we want to focus on the nature of both camps. The best cue for that is the list of participants.
|Condemning China||Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom|
|Praising China||Algeria, Angola, Bahrain, Belarus, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cuba, Dem. Rep. of Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Gabon, Kuwait, Laos, Myanmar, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Zimbabwe|
It is obvious at first sight, that the condemning faction mainly consists of Westers nations, that have been criticising China for many alleged ills almost from the founding of the People’s Republic. More or less the same group regularly issues similar critical reports about other nations, taking their shared political system as THE benchmark for the entire world to follow.
The praising faction is a much more diverse group of nations, some of which are not at all natural friends. This indicates that it is not a group of usual suspects, but one that was composed specially for this joint statement. The most salient feature of this group is that it comprises more than a few Islamic nations, including Saudi Arabia. Several of the nations of this group have been the object of similar public accusations from the Western nations. For them, the large-scale attack on China apparently functioned as a red rag, triggering them to unite in a counter statement.
Most of the praising nations are emerging economies that have to fight for a piece of the global economic pie that is so tightly guarded by the developed Western nations. This is reflected in the following paragraph in their statement:
“We commend China’s remarkable achievements in the field of human rights by adhering to the people-centred development philosophy and protecting and promoting human rights through development”
In the heat of this debate, the State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China published a white paper titled “Historical Matters Concerning Xinjiang“.
The CCHRC is not neutral in this debate. We firmly support the initiative of the 37 ambassadors giving a powerful counter-statement to the one-sided, culturally biased, statement of the Western nations.
A related debate took place in the UN on October 29, 2019. Belarus made a joint statement then on behalf of 54 countries (including Pakistan, Russia, Egypt, Bolivia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Serbia) in firm support of China’s counter terrorism and de-radicalization measures in the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region.
Punta del Este Declaration on Human Dignity for Everyone Everywhere
The Punta del Este Declaration commemorates the 70th anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), celebrating its recognition of human dignity at the core of the panoply of human rights and recommitting to protecting it for everyone everywhere. The Declaration was adopted at a conference convened in Punta del Este, Uruguay from December 2-4, 2018, shortly before the formal 70th anniversary of the UDHR (December 10, 2018).
Biased reporting of Bangladesh elections
Sheikh Hasina’s party has won the Bangladesh general elections with a landslide victory once more. The reporting on this event in some of the Western media is quite biased in the perspective of cross-cultural human rights. On one hand, the high percentage of voters endorsing the prime minister is linked to the great economic growth that Bangladesh has seen during her term in power. On the other hand, the prime minister is accused of ‘running an authoritarian government that allows human rights abuses to spread’.
Although we have not (yet) performed a detail investigation into the nature of the facts leading to that accusation, it is very likely that at least part of the accusations is based on cultural biases. Several individuals interviewed by Western journalists freely confirmed that they voted for the Awami League in the hope that the economic growth will continue. Until proven otherwise, the CCHRC stresses that fulfillment of the basic economic needs of people is also a human right. The Awami League has definitely performed well in this respect.
Amnesty International strips Aung San Suu Kyi of award
It is with regret that the CCHRC has learned that Amnesty International has stripped Aung San Suu Kyi of the Ambassador of Conscience Award. It is one action in a long chain of similar ones, in which the Myanmar leader has seen one honorary title after another taken away from her.
It shows once more that Amnesty International and other givers of such awards or titles are more focused on rituals like the ceremonial handing out awards, than on practicing what they preach in the everyday reality in the field.
Aung San Suu Kyi received most of these titles, it is a long list, during the time of her house arrest following a major victory of her party in the parliamentary elections. During those years, she remained a very vocal advocate of human rights in Myanmar. Her activities were mainly making herself heard and read, from that relatively comfortable and isolate space, but she was able to inspire a major part of the Myanmar population through those activities. None of those honorary titles played a role in this success.
However, when she succeeded in creating such a critical mass that the military saw no other option than to grant her a certain political influence, she did not shun her responsibilities and became Myanmar’s civil political leader as Foreign Minister and State Councillor.
She has to fulfill these functions and make the most out of it, while still having to share power with the army that kept controlling part of parliament. This requires a high level of political and interpersonal skills. The rapid social and economic developments since the moment she took charge are sufficient proof that Aung San Suu Kyi has the proper skills. To mention one concrete example: private entrepreneurship is thriving in present day Myanmar. It is now possible to initiate business activities without involving the army in one way or another.
It would be unfair to expect that she would eradicate all political issues in this highly diverse nation with its complex recent history. Moreover, it would be inhuman to expect her to do so on her own, without the cooperation of political associates and at least a considerable part of the Myanmar population. Aung San Suu Kyi has been able to organise that cooperation. Unfortunately, small groups of the Myanmar population are taking advantage of the newly gained freedom to start provoking the government by propagating more ‘freedom’ or even independence of their own ethnic group. Their actions include armed attacks on government agencies and officials with the clear objective to provoke counteractions. No national government can ignore such actions. As Myanmar still lacks a fully functional police force, such armed actions are dealt with by the army. This is an unfortunate course of action that can easily lead to excessive violence. However, that does not alter the fact that that violence was provoked by equally inappropriate hostilities.
The CCHRC obviously would like to see the armed conflicts in Myanmar stopped. We regret that the Western world is once more reacting to these conflicts by pointing fingers and shouting names, while it would be better to offer Myanmar help, e.g., to develop a proper police force that can respond to such issues in a more restrained way and take measures to prevent them from happening. Aung San Suu Kyi seems to be doing her utmost to maintain the development of Myanmar that she helped starting up. However, being human, she also has her limits. It would be unfair to expect her to prevent militant groups to provoke the army. Once a provocation has taken place, she is not in a position to deter the army from making reprisals.
Fortunately, Aung San Suu Kyi is again continuing the work she has committed herself to. Just as the honorary titles played no role when she had them, having them taken away is also of no consequence to her dedication.
Beijing rebuts human rights allegations from Human Rights Watch
There has been another negative report about current Chinese policies in China’s westernmost Xinjiang region, known as the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, by the NGO Human Rights Watch (HRW). The allegations have been rebutted by a spokesman of the Chinese Foreign Ministry (see: China Daily, 11 Sept., 2018). The latter not only dismissed the most recent accusations, but also pointed out that “Human Rights Watch NGO has always been full of prejudice against China”.
That counter-accusation is not unfounded. HRW has been accused of being biased and employing poor research methods numerous times, including by other NGOs engaged in human rights issues.
Accusations by HRW towards China and rebuttals by the Chinese government have become a recursive ritual that does not add to the improvement of the human rights of any person or group of people. The Cross Cultural Human Rights Centre has been erected to break this vicious cycle of accusations and initiate an ongoing dialogue between nations with different cultural traditions, based on mutual respect of one another’s cultural values and social practices embedded in those values. To attain that goal, affiliates of the CCHRC are constantly building and fine-tuning academic methods that they exchange during periodic seminars, like the ones reported in the Events page of this site. The CCHRC would be delighted to see members of HRW participate on our academic exchanges.
Chinese human rights delegation visits UK
A delegation of China’s largest national nongovernmental organization in the field of human rights wrapped up its visit to Britain on Tuesday after meeting with politicians, researchers and senior lawyers.
The China Society for Human Rights Studies delegation, during its four-day visit, held symposiums with Alex Pinfield, head of the East Asia Department of the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office; Champa Patel, head of the Asia-Pacific Program at Chatham House; Lord Davidson of Glen Clova; and Lord Garnier of the House of Lords and attended a roundtable discussion organized by the Great Britain China Center.
Fu Zitang, head of the delegation, vice-president of the society and president of Southwest University of Political Science and Law, said that the visit aims to enhance mutual understanding between the Chinese and British sides in the field of human rights and to reduce misunderstandings.
He said the delegation introduced to the British side the latest achievements of China’s human rights protection and development.
“China has combined the universal principle of human rights with the country’s reality and found a route suited to its own national conditions,” he said.
The British side welcomed the delegation and appreciated China’s remarkable achievement in poverty reduction, hoping to conduct deeper and more extensive discussion and cooperation with China.
(source: China Daily, July 5, 2018)
United States withdraws from Human Rights Council
The United States has announced that it will withdraw from the United Nations Human Rights Council. The US ambassador to the UN Nikki Haley called the organisation a “protector of human rights abusers and a cesspool of political bias” and “an organisation that is not worthy of its name”. The US has long called for the body to reform, saying it allows members that have been accused human rights violations. Ms Haley pointed to the involvement of countries like China, Cuba and Venezuela in her speech on Tuesday.
The CCHRC favours an open dialogue between all nations about the nature and practical application of human rights. The most basic requirement for starting and maintaining a dialogue is the existence of differences of opinion and an attitude of the participants in the dialogue of respecting those differences.
The goal of the dialogue is not reaching some kind of one single opinion, after which the dialogue can stop, but maintaining the dialogue to allow nations to continuously exchange opinions on concrete issues related to human rights. Such a dialogue will produce an endless stream of ideas and propositions that practitioners in the field, or politicians facing difficult decisions, can use to formulate practical solutions.
Running away from a dialogue means that you are no longer willing to participate in that dialogue. The CCHRC welcomes all nations to participate and regrets it when any nation withdraws, regardless the size of that nation. However, we also believe that the dialogue can continue as long as there are at least two nations willing to do so. In fact, the number of such nations is much larger than two. This means that the US decision to withdraw will not harm the dialogue and will only result in the US not being able to enjoy the fruits of the dialogue, at least not to the largest possible extent.
Having said this, the naming of concrete nations by the US Ambassador to the UN does violate one basic principle of the CCHRC: we do not exclude any nation from the dialogue. An individual nation can be criticised for a particular issue during the dialogue, after which that nation will have the right and opportunity to defend itself, again in a way that complies with the spirit and principles of the CCHRC. This could theoretically lead to a nation left alone without any other nation defending its actions. We believe that such a lonely position will sooner or later lead to changes, behaviour that will attract support from other nations participating in that continuous dialogue. The CCHRC is inclusive and definitely not exclusive.
To summarise: the CCHRC regrets the US decision to withdraw but does not see any consequence of that decision for the continuous dialogue about human rights between nations. The CCHRC will at any time welcome the return of the US. However, we sincerely hope that by that time the US attitude will be inclusive, rather than exclusive
New post on the Culture and Human Rights blog
Use of mother tongue is a human right
The compulsory use of English in higher education is a topic of public discussion in a growing number of non-English speaking nations. This blog positions these debates as a human rights issue.
New post on the Culture and Human Rights blog
The China University of Politics & Law (CUPL) announces its 2018 Summer School program
the Institute for Human Rights of CUPL will organise the 10th session of its CUPL Human Rights Academy will be held on July 2 -13. The instructors will include a number of international scholars. You can read more about the program and conditions to participate here.
Freedom House publishes its latest mapping of the free world
“Political rights and civil liberties around the world deteriorated to their lowest point in more than a decade in 2017, extending a period characterized by emboldened autocrats, beleaguered democracies, and the United States’ withdrawal from its leadership role in the global struggle for human freedom.”
This is a paragraph of the explanatory text of the Freedom in the World 2018 map recently published by the Freedom House. Indeed, when we start calculating the non-free world by adding the purple and green nations, we end up with 55% of less-than-free countries. From the other side, the not-unfree nations are still good for 75%. While not contending the importance of freedom, this map and the reasoning on which it is based are highly problematic, when interpreted from the philosophy of the CCHRC. First of all, culture does not seem to play a serious role for the members of Freedom House. A search with ‘culture’ using the site’s own search engine, generates phrases with the structure ‘culture of X’, where X stands for words like: rape, fear, corruption, tolerance, compromise. Some of these have a positive connotation, but the majority are negative. Culture as a set of basic values that people of a region use to make sense of the world is completely absent. One could contend that Freedom House is focusing on freedom, only one aspect of human rights. However, even then, to colour a country like India green and China purple, completely ignoring the enormous differences in the percentage of the population living below the poverty line, is at least ironic. What is the meaning of ‘freedom’, like free elections, if such a large part of the population is starving? We at the CCHRC are not the only ones wondering about this, as shown by this discussion on Quora. Back to China, one of the most populous of the purple nations on this map, how can the information provided by Freedom House explain the high ratio of Chinese who believe that their country is on the right track (90% for Chinese; 79% for Indians)?
Yet another organization spends its days monitoring the degree of happiness of the peoples of the world. Here is their latest mapping, the World Happiness Index 2017. The darker green the happier the people of that nation; the darker red the unhappier the people of that nation.
Continuing with China and India as two populous non-Western nations that are so frequently compared, we can look up the exact indices of these nations. China tops India with their respective ranks of 79 and 122. While we can readily relate freedom to human rights, happiness seems like a more elusive state of mind. However, the Happiness Index is a compound including indices for ‘healthy life expectancy’, ‘freedom to make life choices’, which are directly linked to human rights. The ‘freedom’ in this context refers to everyday life, while Freedom House concentrates on political freedom.
And then there is the World Inequality Report 2018. Let’s zoom in on one of the tables on this site, showing the share of the top 10% income shares in the GDP of selected nations in 2016.
According to these figures, income inequality in China is considerably smaller than in India, and even smaller than in North America.
Finally, there is the 2018 Edelman Trust Barometer. This continuous study monitors the trust in NGOs, business, government and media by the general online population and the informed public in 28 countries. While the global trust situation deteriorated a little in 2017, that of both India and China increased slightly. China even tops the 2018 list with 74 (from 3rd in the 2017 report with 67). India ranks 3 with 68 (from first in 2017 with 72). Most of the purple countries on the Freedom list end up on the less than 50 sections of the Edelman Trust list. We can hear people argue that people with more freedom will vent their feelings of distrust more freely. However, Edelman has taken than into account. The high score for China can be attributed to the efforts of the current government to fight corruption, which used to be the major concern of the man in the street in China. The fact that only non-Western nations end up in the positive section seems to indicate that culture is mediating the outcomes. However, the Edelman Trust Barometer does not take culture into account, like Freedom House.
The CCHRC does not have all the answers ready, but we would never claim that we have. The common problem we have will with all these mappings is that they has been done while looking at humanity through a very narrow lens. The CCHRC proposes that the human rights situation in each nation should be judged using a combination of a commonly accepted set of basic human rights and a model of national/regional culture. The practical implementation of the same human right can differ between regions with different cultures. Moreover, regional developments can take place at a speed that defies the annual drawing of simplified maps. We prefer thorough case studies like the ones you can find in the Publications section of this site.
Berlin celebrates Human Rights with Christmas
The United Buddy Bears, each decorated using the unique symbols of a different nation, were one of the highlights of the Christmas decorations of Berlin in 2017. The bears could be admired in the Walter-Benjamin-Platz. In the middle of the square, a single bear was dedicated to Human Rights, with all national bears staring at him in awe. The bears moved elsewhere on January 8, but your webmaster was lucky enough to shoot some pictures and make this the first news item on the CCHRC’s new site.
The First South-South Human Rights Forum adopts the Beijing Declaration
More than 300 officials, scholars and representatives from over 70 countries, regions and international organizations attended the South-South Human Rights Forum that was held in Beijing December 7-8, 2017. CCHRC’s Tom Zwart (see the About page on this site) was one of the speakers during the opening session. The two-day forum centred on the theme “Building a Community of Shared Future for Humanity: New Opportunities for South-South Human Rights Development“. According to the Beijing Declaration issued at the forum, participants agreed that the right to subsistence and the right to development are the primary basic human rights. The main body of the right to development is the people. Developing countries should pay special attention to safeguarding the people’s right to subsistence and right to development, especially to achieve a decent standard of living, adequate food, clothing, and clean drinking water, the right to housing, security, work, education, health and social security, said the declaration.
You can find the full text of the Beijing Declaration here.